Abraham had fled the army of Andrew Jackson and helped build the fort at Prospect Bluff (in Florida). When Nichols and and Upper Creek Chief Joseph Francis set sail for England in 1815 Abraham stayed behind in the Fort, which had become a haven for Africans who had escaped from slavery.

The fort was attacked and destroyed during the first Seminole War (1817-1818); Abraham was one of the few survivors. He made his way to a Suwannee River Town in Flroida. Abraham continued fighting during the first Seminole War and he became known as "Sauanaffe Tustunnagee" (Suwannee Warrior). He lived in an African town in Florida called Pilaklinkaha, or Many Ponds, and was adopted as a member of the Seminole Nation. He became the Prime Minister of the Cowkeeper Dynasty and a chief advisor to Micanopy, principle chief of the Alachua Seminole.


Photo of Seminoles – warrior Abraham and wife Hagan

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Abraham even served as an interpreter for Micanopy in 1826 when a delegation of Seminole Chiefs visited Washington D.C. Later in life, Abraham married a woman named Hagan, the widow of Chief Bowlegs. A detail of Abraham’s death is unknown.

Reference:
African American and Native American History
Princeton Public Library
65 Witherspoon Street
Princeton, NJ 08542
609-924-9529

Seminole Indians

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Black Seminole Abraham

Abraham had fled the army of Andrew Jackson and helped build the fort at Prospect Bluff (in Florida). When Nichols and and Upper Creek Chief Joseph Francis set sail for England in 1815 Abraham stayed behind in the Fort, which had become a haven for Africans who had escaped from slavery.

The fort was attacked and destroyed during the first Seminole War (1817-1818); Abraham was one of the few survivors. He made his way to a Suwannee River Town in Flroida. Abraham continued fighting during the first Seminole War and he became known as "Sauanaffe Tustunnagee" (Suwannee Warrior). He lived in an African town in Florida called Pilaklinkaha, or Many Ponds, and was adopted as a member of the Seminole Nation. He became the Prime Minister of the Cowkeeper Dynasty and a chief advisor to Micanopy, principle chief of the Alachua Seminole.


Photo of Seminoles – warrior Abraham and wife Hagan

Image

Abraham even served as an interpreter for Micanopy in 1826 when a delegation of Seminole Chiefs visited Washington D.C. Later in life, Abraham married a woman named Hagan, the widow of Chief Bowlegs. A detail of Abraham’s death is unknown.

Reference:
African American and Native American History
Princeton Public Library
65 Witherspoon Street
Princeton, NJ 08542
609-924-9529

Seminole Chief Billy Bowlegs

"Billy Bowlegs" was O-lac-to-mi-co or "Holato Mico" (circa 1810-circa 1864), a Seminole chief who was part of a ruling Seminole family. Bowlegs met up with Andrew Jackson during the Indian uprisings of the early 1800's. In the 1850's, when the few remaining Florida Seminoles were living peacefully on their own lands in south Florida, 'the old Chieftain' was provoked into war by Colonel Harney's surveying corps. One night Harney's men slipped into Bowleg's thriving banana plantation and hacked the plants to bits. When confronted by the outraged chieftain, the surveyors brazenly admitted to ruining the plantation because they wanted "to see old Billy cut up". The incident led to the Third Seminole War (1855-1858), bringing federal troops and bloodhounds into South Florida. Chief Bowlegs and his war-weary band surrendered on May 7, 1858. Thirty-eight warriors and eighty-five women and children, including Billy's wife, boarded the steamer, Grey Cloud, at Egmont Key to begin their journey to Oklahoma. Bowlegs died soon after his arrival, on April 27, 1859. 

Photograph of Seminole Chief, Billy Bowlegs

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Excerpts taken from Biography prepared by Gail Clement, Florida International University.

Seminole Indians

These groups were to become known as Seminoles. The word "Seminole" is derived from the Muskogee word "simano-li," taken originally from the Spanish "cimmarron." meaning wild or runaway. Starting in 1810, the U.S. Government fought three wars against determined groups of Seminole men, women and children who were fighting for their homes and their freedom. The objective of the U.S. Government was to open new lands to white settlers.

 

FOR MORE INFORMATION: http://keyshistory.org/seminolespage1.html

 

Seminole Indians Today