Rights of way draft report spells trouble

WASHINGTON – A draft report on tribal rights of way, commissioned by Congress from the departments of Energy and the Interior, has been referred to the White House by the departments, according to Pau
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Cobell legislation hopes fade in committee

WASHINGTON – Sen. John McCain, R-Ariz., announced Aug. 2 that the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs will withhold a bill to settle the Cobell v. Kempthorne trust funds lawsuit from
Read more at: http://www.indiancountry.com/content.cfm?id=1096413445.

Interior’s probate reform proceeds

RAPID CITY, S.D. – Probate reform, as proposed by the Department of the Interior, has left as many questions as solutions for tribal leaders. During the first of the final three consultation meetings
Read more at: http://www.indiancountry.com/content.cfm?id=1096413446.

FIRST NATIONS HISTORY (H)

Houma

The Houma Tribe is a band of Choctaw Indians who separated from the main body of the tribe and settled near the junction of the Red and Mississippi Rivers before the French explorer La Salle arrived in 1682. Because their war emblem is the saktce-ho’ma, or Red Crawfish, anthropologist John R. Swanton has speculated that the Houma are an offshoot of the Yazoo River region’s Chakchiuma tribe, whose name is a corruption of saktce-ho’ma. Individuals in the tribe maintained contact with other Choctaw communities even after settling in lower Lafourche-Terrebonne. It is not certain exactly how the Houma came to settle near the mouth of the Red River, formerly the River of the Houma. We only know that the French explorers found them at the site of present-day Angola, Louisiana, unaware that their lands would soon be part of the French colony of Louisiana. 

Huron 

The Huron Indians were a proud Indian nation with a well-defined governmental system. The Huron nation was divided into sub-tribes or clans. Their history is filled with wars, which led to loss of territory and forced many sub-tribes to relocate to safer territory. The Huron were not nomadic tribes; they had many great villages each with its own government representative. The Huron lived in communal dwellings consisting of large log style homes . Most log houses ranged between 45-55 meters or 150- 180 ft long. They were made of slabs of bark over pole frames. The longest log house ever found measured 125m and was found in New York. During the peaceful years the Huron’s hunted and fished and used bows and arrows and spears. The Huron were able to catch almost anything they wanted to eat. They were a diverse group of people who lead a very diverse life and had a direct impact on the land and the people who inhabited it.

The Huron government was divided into a republican style of government; the larger villages were captains for peace during times of conflict, each large village had a well-defined jurisdiction. The tribes in the Huron nation each have their own distinct past and heritage. The Huron nation was divided into sub-tribes also called clans. The major sub-nations of the Huron are the Arendahronon (rock sub-tribe), the Attigneenongnahac (bear sub-tribe), the Attignawantan (cord sub-tribe), and the Tahontaenrat (deer sub-tribe). The Huron nation did not always exist in such peace and harmony. The history of the Huron depicts a once-proud Indian nation that suffered through many wars and lost many people and territory.

FIRST NATIONS HISTORY (E)

The name Erie is a shortened form of Erielhonan, a word which means ‘long tail’ in the language of the Iroquois. This is in reference to the mountain lion which roamed the domain of these people. The Erie, in fact, spoke a derivation of the Iroquois language which was, apparently similar to that of the Huron. The Erie managed to elude contact with the white man. Apart from one brief encounter, the French were not able to reach them. Neither were the Dutch or the Swedish, although they did hear about them from other tribes. Information about their culture and living conditions has, therefore been passed on to historians through second hand accounts from members of other tribes, most notably the Huron.

From them we learn that the Erie lived in scattered villages which were stockaded for protection. Their homes were the traditional long house that could house several families. They were, like most of the surrounding tribes, farmers and hunters. The main crops were corn, beans and squash. Following the harvest they would embark on the winter hunt. During this time they would live in winter camps. Like many of the eastern tribes the Erie were the traditional enemies of the Iroquois. They were, apparently, fearsome warriors.

FIRST NATIONS HISTORY (D)

Delaware 

The name "Delaware" was given to the people who lived along the Delaware River, and the river in turn was named after Lord de la Warr, the governor of the Jamestown colony. The name Delaware later came to be applied to almost all Lenape people. In the language, which belongs to the Algonquian language family, the Delaware call themselves LENAPE (len-NAH-pay) which means something like "The People." The Delaware ancestors were among the first Indians to come in contact with the Europeans (Dutch, English, & Swedish) in the early 1600s. The Delaware were called the "Grandfather" tribe because they were respected by other tribes as peacemakers since they often served to settle disputes among rival tribes. The Delaware were also known for their fierceness and tenacity as warriors when they had to fight, however, they preferred to choose a path of peace with the Europeans and other tribes.

Broccoli & Wild Rice Casserole

Recipe of The Week: Broccoli and Wild Rice Casserole

Broccoli & Wild Rice Casserole

 

Tribal Affiliation : Saxon, Ojibway & Lesh (Polish)

 

Orgin of Recipe : Offered by Deborah Running Behind

 Ingredients

  • salt & pepper to taste
  • 6 oz. cream cheese, softened
  • 1 onion, chopped fine
  • 2 cups cooked, chopped broccoli
  • 4 cups cooked wild rice
  • Note: Feel free to vary the amounts to suit your personal taste(s)!

 Directions Stir together all ingredients in a buttered baking dish.

Bake in a 350-degree (F) oven for 20-30 minutes.

Recipe of The Week: Broccoli and Wild Rice Casserole

Broccoli & Wild Rice Casserole

 

Tribal Affiliation : Saxon, Ojibway & Lesh (Polish)

 

Orgin of Recipe : Offered by Deborah Running Behind

 Ingredients

  • salt & pepper to taste
  • 6 oz. cream cheese, softened
  • 1 onion, chopped fine
  • 2 cups cooked, chopped broccoli
  • 4 cups cooked wild rice
  • Note: Feel free to vary the amounts to suit your personal taste(s)!

 Directions Stir together all ingredients in a buttered baking dish.

Bake in a 350-degree (F) oven for 20-30 minutes.  

FIRST NATIONS HISTORY (C)

Variously described as the Unconquered and Unconquerable or the Spartans of the lower Mississippi Valley, the Chickasaw were the most formidable warriors of the American Southeast, and anyone who messed with them came to regret it, if they survived! British traders from the Carolinas were quick to recognize their prowess in this regard and armed the Chickasaw to the teeth, after which, no combination of the French and their native allies was able to dislodge the Chickasaw from the stranglehold they imposed upon French commerce on the lower Mississippi. The Chickasaw could cut New France in two, which seriously crippled the French in any war with the British. From the high ground overlooking the Mississippi River at Memphis, the Chickasaw took on all comers, including tribes four to five times their size and never lost until they picked the wrong side in the American Civil War. Even then, the Chickasaw Nation was the last Confederate government to surrender to Union forces.

 

Chitimacha 

To enhance their appearance, the Chitimacha flattened the foreheads of their male children. Most men wore their hair long, but there were occasional reports of some of their warriors having a scalplock. With the mild climate, male clothing was limited to a breechcloth which allowed a display of their extensive tattooing of the face, body, arms and legs. Women limited themselves to a short skirt. Their hair was also worn long but usually braided. Socially, the Chitimacha were divided into matrilineal (descent traced through the mother) totemic (named for an animal) clans. The most distinctive characteristic of Chitimacha society was their strict caste system of two ranked groups: nobles and commoners. The separation between them included the use of two distinct dialects with commoners required to address nobles in the proper language. The Chitimacha were unique among Native Americans with their practice of strict endogamy (a person can only marry someone from their own group). A noble man or woman who married a commoner forfeited their higher status.   

Comanche 

Wrestling horses was common among the plains tribes, but like everything else concerning the horse, Comanches did it on a grand scale. As the number of Spanish horses in New Mexico became inadequate, Comanche raids reached south into Texas and Mexico. By 1775 the Spanish governor of New Mexico was complaining that, despite constant re-supply from Mexico, Comanche raiders had wrestled so many horses he did not have enough to pursue them.

The Comanche epitomized the mounted plains warrior. Until the 1750s, they often employed leather armor and large body shields to protect both horse and rider. This changed with increased use of firearms and quickly changed into the stereotypical light cavalry tactics associated with plains warfare. This development first forced the Spanish, and later Texans and Americans, to cope with a new style of mounted warfare. They did not do very well at first. European cavalry had evolved into heavy-armed dragoons designed to break massed-infantry formations. There was no way these soldiers could stay with mounted Comanches who usually left them eating dust ..if they could find them in the first place. The Texas Rangers were organized during the 1840s primarily to fight Comanches. A decade later, when the American army began to assume much of the Rangers' responsibility, it had much to learn.  

FIRST NATIONS HISTORY (B)

Bayougoula 

Dogs were the only animal domesticated by Native Americans before the horse, but the Bayougoula in 1699 kept small flocks of turkeys. The tribes of the lower Mississippi were also unique in that tribal territories were well defined. Decorated with fish heads and bear bones, a large red post near the mouth of the Red River marked the boundary between the Bayougoula and the Houma just to the north. Translated into French, the location of this "Red Post" became known as Baton Rouge, the present-day capital of Louisiana. 

Beothuk 

One thing that is known about the Beothuk was their love of the color red. While the use of red ocre was common among Native Americans, no other tribe used it as extensively as the Beothuk. They literally covered everything – their bodies, faces, hair, clothing, personal possessions, and tools – with a red paint made from powdered ochre mixed with either fish oil or animal grease. It was also employed in burials. The reasons are unknown, but speculation has ranged from their religion (about which we know very little) to protection from insects. The practice was so excessive, even the Micmac referred to them as the Red Indians, and it is believed the term "redskin" used for Native Americans probably originated from early contacts between European fishermen and Beothuk.